The Soil Science Society of China (SSSC) is composed of a national convention, a board of directors, a standing council and several specialty (working) committees.

The National Convention is the highest authority of the society, whose responsibilities are to formulate and amend the SSSC Chapter to elect and recall board members to deliberate on work statements and financial statements of the board and to make decisions on working policies and tasks of the convention, and on termination of the convention and other important issues.

The Board of Directors, formed of members elected every four years at the convention, is the executive body of the National Convention, and manages routine activities of the society on behalf of the National Convention. The Standing Council is elected out of the Board and consists of a chairperson, a vice chairperson and several members, who are charged with the duty of the Board. In light of needs of the operation, the Standing Council may set up a few specialty (working) committees, responsible to coordinate business affairs and work out proposals. The current Board of Directors (2020 -2024) consists of 142 members.

The SSSC has more than 20 committees which specialize in soil physics, soil chemistry, soil-plant nutrition, soil ecology, soil biology and biochemistry, soil genetic classification and soil geography, soil erosion and soil-water conservation, soil environment, salt-affected soils, forest soils, soil remote sensing and information, soil fertility and fertilizer, soil remediation, others responsible for scientific popularization, education, youth, edition and term verification, soil quality standardization, soil engineering, and international collaboration. It has three working groups that focuses on nitrogen, soil health, and environmental micro-plastics. The society also has 31 provincial-level soil (fertilizer) societies.